Efremova A.A. 1
Backgrounds for the emergence of mobilization technologies. In recent years, there has been an growing number of information and technological revolutions that are increasingly coming to society and qualitatively changing people's lives. Therefore, the coverage of Russians using the Internet every day is still growing: in 2015 this number was 63.9 million people; for 2016 - 84 million people . Researchers note the trend, according to which the number of users who have access to the Network from a computer, gradually stops growing and stabilizing. It is due to the access to the Internet from mobile devices that the number of active users is growing.
In the 21st century there are a large number of mobile devices with the Internet access capability. And this was another «world communication revolution» – wireless communication . In 2012, 12.3 million smartphones were sold in Russia; in 2016 – 26.4 million . At the same time, sales of conventional mobile phones fell: in 2012, Russia sold 29.1 million phones; in 2016 – 10.8 million . In many ways, such a rapid growth of smartphone users is due to the widespread use of cellular networks with 3G and 4G Internet access, a reduction in the cost of data transmission over the network, the emergence of instant messengers and social networks.
Theory of Network Society. Manuel Castells is a well-known American sociologist of Spanish descent, specialized in field of information society theory. He published his most popular three-volume work, «The Information Age: Society, and Culture» (1996-1998), ten years before the emergence of mobilization technologies . Such processes as globalization «led him to the idea of the emergence of a qualitatively new morphology of society» .
The researcher writes that social ties have always existed, but with the advent of new technologies in the 21st century, the problem of the network society becomes even more urgent. The basis of his most famous work is the hypothesis that new information technologies change the world around us, touching every sphere of society. Let us examine the theory of the researcher concerning the field of communication in more detail.
Castells defines the network society as a society whose social structure is based on networks that have emerged due to the development of information technology. Social reality in modern society has a "network character" due to the massive spread of Internet technology.
The main feature of the networked society is the lack of hierarchy. Networks decentralize execution and distribute decision making. They do not have a center. They operate on the basis of binary logic: inclusion / exclusion. Everything that is included in the network is useful and necessary for its existence, what is not included – does not exist from the network point of view, and may be ignored.
Speaking about mass communication, Castells believes that the new achievements of the information and technological revolution are not traditional media, although they make it possible to send messages to an unlimited circle of individuals. The researcher considers them to be tools of interactive communication. And indeed, the interactivity of the Internet and social networks becomes a distinctive feature from traditional media: users choose for themselves what and when they consume, no longer depending on the television grid or advertising.
Nevertheless, up until now it was not possible to clearly distinguish traditional media from interactive ones. For example, the Internet is closely intertwined with television: «based on the results of a study conducted by the Annenberg Center at the University of Southern California, teens are no longer using traditional devices to watch TV, they resort to mobile devices or computers for this» . Thus, television remains a traditional media, but its way and format of its consumption varies, affecting on culture of communication.
On mobilization technologies. The Internet becomes the daily need for more individuals, penetrating into all areas of human life and performing more and more functions. The network becomes the basic tool for interaction with colleagues from work, data storage, personal pastime, information, use of government services. More media and cultural products are becoming digitized and are being accessed.
As a consequence, we can see that the information society is characterized by the emergence of a «system of real virtuality – a system in which reality itself (that is, the material and symbolic existence of people) is completely immersed in virtual images that become experiences» . The distinctive features of that system or «culture»  are the differentiation and segmentation of the audience into niche markets. In addition, the spread of the Internet contributes to the development of a new form of communication, characterized by mass character and independence.
This form of interaction is called mass self-communication by Castells, i.e., the opportunity by which users become both senders and recipients of messages to an unlimited range of potential audiences. This form of communication has emerged thanks to the new Web 2.0 technology. It is this novelty that made it possible to create a new type of site, filled with various data by the users themselves. The only condition for users is authorization. Castells argues that it was the horizontal networks that provided the rapid growth of mass communication, and, consequently, the use of social networks. 
The content of mass self-communication is created, distributed and managed by users. Thus, there is no medium of information anymore – any individual who has access to the Internet, can build its information system.
Consequently, mobilization technologies are new media technologies that are created, managed and filled with content by the users themselves and, ultimately, allow users to collaborate with common interests and goals.
In the 21st century individuals built their own systems of mass self-communication using various mobilization technologies: "Wookieepedia" about the Star Wars universe, which everyone can edit; The most popular blog in Russian Internet is Rustem Adagamov's blog, which tells about current events in the world in simple language ; One of the leading sports websites of Russia, sports.ru, has created a platform where each user can publish his material and so on.
Therefore, social networks, based on the equality and autonomy of individuals, unite people all over the world. Common interests and goals become touch points, which sometimes cannot be realized alone. An example from the political sphere can serve as a rally coordinated and organized by the "Solidarnost" movement on Chistoprudnyi Blvd. in Moscow, which took place on December 5, 2011. The reason for the rally was the alleged falsification of the elections to the State Duma, at which "United Russia" party won approximately 50 percent of the votes and guaranteed more than half of the parliamentary mandates. There were several thousand people at the rally – a record number of participants for such events at that time. According to the data, the audience of this rally was recruited through social networks – tools of mass self-communication .
But not always mobilization technologies are aimed at expression of discontent by society. Sports events become a meeting point for people united by one goal. Users like to feel support, find friends and followers, they like to feel involvement and complicity. In 2015 more than 5 thousand people participated in the «Promsvyazbank Moscow Marathon», in 2016 this number increased to 8 thousand . And just like in the case of the rally, the audience gathers thanks to mobilization technologies. But if in the first case people are moved by discontent, then what moves them in the second case? Why do users trade their comfortable online environment for offline environment, where you need to overcome yourself?
Mobilization technologies and their application in the field of mass sports. To find out how mobilization technologies work, a study was conducted, during which 102 people were questioned in the mode of express interview. The research was held in Rostov-on-Don at mass races such as «Rostov Don Marathon-2016», «Go Run on January, 1st», and «III Officer Marathon». It should be noted that the conditions for the functioning of mobilization technologies and the number of potential audiences in the regions and the capital are different.
Among the respondents there were people of different occupations and professions: schoolchildren, students, lawyers, designers, marketers, journalists, bankers, programmers, military personnel, engineers, economists, top managers of small businesses, sales managers, former sportsmen, pensioners.
Each of the respondents thought about how to answer the question of motivation, for what they run. Frequent answers were: "for pleasure," "to maintain health," "to overcome oneself," "in charitable races, it is an opportunity to help people."
Picture 1. Answers of runners about motivation
It should be noted that the Internet and social networks were the source of information for 90% of the respondents participating in the survey, 8% of the respondents found out about the passing event from friends and only 2% of the respondents named other reasons.
Picture 2. Sources of information about race
Thus, the development of the Internet and the emergence of mobilization technologies had a qualitative impact on the nature of communication. Social networks due to their main difference from other means of communication – the lack of hierarchy – allow unfamiliar users to unite, coordinate their meetings and go to offline environment. As a result of the research, the hypothesis was confirmed that the main source of information for participants in mass sports events is the Internet and social networks. This confirms the work of mobilization technologies. Mass sports events help people to feel ownership of the events, involvement in the common cause, to satisfy the need for self-realization, to enjoy and find friends by interests.
Библиографическая ссылкаЕфремова А.А. ВЛИЯНИЕ МОБИЛИЗАЦИОННЫХ ТЕХНОЛОГИЙ НА РАЗВИТИЕ МАССОВОГО СПОРТА // European Student Scientific Journal. – 2017. – № 2.;
URL: http://sjes.esrae.ru/ru/article/view?id=408 (дата обращения: 31.05.2020).